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A Rose for Emily
Dulce et Decorum Est
I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud
The Glass Menagerie
The Masque of the Red Death
The Story of an Hour
Please write your name in the table if you want to do this topic. Highlight the name of your group leader in red if you have elected one. Since this is a big group. I suggest you divided yourself into smaller groups with each groups focus on particular aspects of the novel. Just a suggestion. Feel free to do it your way...
SYAHIRAH BT SAFFARUDIN
KHADIJAH BINTI HJ ZAINAL
NADIA ILANI BINTI SAMSURI
NOR SYUHADA BINTI NOR AZMAN
AINUR MARDHIAH BINTI MOHD RADZI
FARAH AIDA BINTI MASIHID
NORFARHANAH BINTI AHMAD
AZLIN SHAH BINTI AZHAM SHAH
Nur Nadia binti Zainal Abidin
Farah Liana binti Hamdan
NORA SINAR BINTI MANAP
NOR AKMAR BINTI ABDUL AZIZ
NURHUSNA BINTI SHARUDIN
SOFEA BINTI MUHAMAD ASMADI
MUHAMMAD AKMAL ARIFFIN BIN AHMAD
'The Family Tree'
Emily Bronte was born on July 30th 1818 at Thornton, Bradford in Yorkshire, fifth child of the six children. Her mother died of cancer in 1821. In 1824 she attended the newly opened Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge. While there along with her sisters Maria, Elizabeth and Charlotte they suffer the harsh regime, cold and poor food. In June 1825 Emily and her sisters were finally taken away from the school for good.
Emily and Anne write poetry and stories for their imaginary world of Gondal. Few survive, but they worked together on poems and the Gondal sagas into the 1840'sIn July 1835 she enrolled at Miss Wooler's school at Roe Head Mirfield which lasted for 3 months, returning to Haworth in October.In February 1842 Charlotte and Emily left Haworth for the Pensionnat Heger at Brussels. While there they learnt French, German and Music. In November 1842 Emily returns to Haworth with Charlotte.In September 1845 Charlotte inadvertently discovers Emily's poems.
Emily is angered by the intrusion into her private writings. Her sister convinced her to collaborate on a book of poems. About this time it is thought Emily started to write In May 1846 under the Pseudonym of Currer Ellis and Acton Bell, a book of Poems was published, Emily contributed 21 poems.In July 1847, the publishers; Thomas. Cautley. Newby accept which is published in the December.In November 1848 Emily's health was poor. Charlotte Bronte writes that her sister has difficulty in breathing and pains in her chest. On 19 December 1848 Emily Bronte died at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. She was 30 years old. On 22 December she is laid to rest in the family vault in Haworth church.December 1850 new edition of is printed with selected poems and a preface written by Charlotte.
'Emily Jane's Signature'
The story can be described as a love story, but it is not only about love, it is also one of revenge story. It follows the life of Heathcliff, a mysterious gypsy-like person, from childhood (about seven years old) to his death in his late thirties. Heathcliff rises in his adopted family and then is reduced to the status of a servant, running away when the young woman he loves (Catherine) decides to marry another. He returns later, rich and educated and sets about gaining his revenge on the two families (Earnshaw and Linton) that he believed ruined his life. He tries to conquer both, Trushcross Grange and Wuthering Heights.
SUMMMARY CHAPTER 1
But mr heathcliff forms a singular contrast to his abode and style of living. He is a dark-skinned gypsy in aspect, in dress and manners a gentleman. This passage, from the first chapter and spoken in the voice of Lockwood, constitutes the first of many attemps in the book to explain the mysterious figure of heathcliff, his character and motivations. Outside of the novel, when critics and readers discuss Wuthering Heights, the same question arises repeatedly. Writing in his diary in 1801, lockwood describes his first days as a tenant at thrushcross grange, an isolated manor in thinly populated Yorkshire. Shortly after arriving at the grange, he pays visits to his landlord, mr heathcliff, a surly, dark man living in a manor called wuthering heights
SUMMARY CHAPTER 2
On a chilly afternoon not long after his first visit, lockwood plans to lounge before the fire in his study, but he finds a servant dustily sweeping out of the fireplace there, so instead he makes a four-mile walk to wuthering heights, arriving just a light snow begins to fall. He knocks, but no one lets him in, and joseph, and old servent eho speaks with a thick Yorkshire accent, calls out from the barn that heathcliff is not in the house.the snowfall becomes a blizzard, when lockwood is ready to leave, he is forced to ask for a guide back to thrushcross grange. No one will help him. He takes a lantern and says that he will find his own way, promising to return the lantern in the morning. Joseph, seeing him make his way through the snow, assumes that he is stealing the lantern, and looses the dogs on him.pinned down by the dogs, lockwood grows furious, and begins cursing the inhabitants of the house. His anger brings on a nose bleed, and he is forced to stay at wuthering heights. The house keeper, Zillah,leads him to bed
SUMARY CHAPTER 3
zillah leads lockwood to an out of the way room from which heathcliff has forbidden visitors. he notices that someone has scratched words into the paint on the ledge.three names are inscribed there repeatedly.lockwood falls asleep and enters into a pair of nightmares. in the morning, heathcliff treats his daughter in law cruelly. he later escorts lockwood home, where the servants, who believed their master dead in the storm, receive him with joy. lockwood, however,retreats into his study to escape human company.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 4
having rejected human contact the day before, lockwood now becomes lonely. when his housekeeper, nelly dean, brings him his supper, he bids her sit and tell him the history of the people at wuthering heights.she attempts to clarify the family relationship, explaining that the young catherine whom lockwood met at wuthering heights is the daughter of the catherine who was nelly's first mistress at wuthering heights. and the hareton earnshaw is young catherine's cousin. the nephew of the first catherine.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 5
Time passes, and Mr. Earnshaw grows frail and weak. Disgusted by the conflict between Heathcliff and Hindley, he sends Hindley away to college. Joseph’s fanatical religious beliefs appeal to Mr. Earnshaw as he nears the end of his life, and the old servant exerts more and more sway over his master. Soon, however, Mr. Earnshaw dies, and it is now Catherine and Heathcliff who turn to religion for comfort. They discuss the idea of heaven while awaiting the return of Hindley, who will now be master of Wuthering Heights.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 6
Hindley and his new wife, a simpering, silly woman named Frances, return to Wuthering Heights in time for Mr. Earnshaw’s funeral. Hindley immediately begins to take his revenge on Heathcliff, declaring that Heathcliff no longer will be allowed an education and instead will spend his days working in the fields like a common laborer. But, for the most part, Catherine and Heathcliff are able to escape Hindley’s notice, and when Heathcliff is free from his responsibilities they go off onto the moors together to play.
One evening, when Heathcliff and Catherine disappear, Hindley orders that the doors be bolted and that the children not be allowed into the house. Despite his charge, Nelly waits for them, and receives a shock when Heathcliff returns alone. He tells her that he and Catherine made the trip to Trushcross Grange to spy on and tease Edgar and Isabella Linton, Mr. Linton’s children. Before they could succeed in their mission, Skulker , the Linton’s guard dog, took them by surprise and chased them, biting Catherine’s ankle. Unable to return home, Catherine was taken inside Trushcross Grange by a servant. However, the Linton’s, repelled by Heathcliff’s rough appearances, forbade her playmate to stay with her. The following day, Mr. Linton pays a visit to Wuthering Heights to explain matters to Hindley and upbraids the young man for his management of Catherine. After, Mr. Linton leaves, the humiliated Hindley furiously tells Heathcliff that he may have no further contact with Catherine
SUMMARY CHAPTER 7
Catherine spends five weeks recuperating the Grange. Mrs. Linton determines to transform the girl into a young lady and spends her time educating Catherine in manners and social graces. Catherine returns to Wuthering Heights at Christmas time, wearing a lovely dress. Hindley says that Heathcliff may greet Catherine “ like the other servants,” and, when he does so, she says he is dirty in comparison with the Linton children, to whom she has grown accustomed. Heathcliff’s feelings are wounded, and he storms out of the room, declaring that he will be as dirty as he likes. The Linton’s children come for dinner at Wuthering Heights the next day. Nelly helps Heathcliff to wash himself and put on suitable clothes after the boy declares his intention to be “good”, but Mrs. Linton has allowed Edgar and Isabella to attend under the condition that Heathcliff be kept away from them. Accordingly, Hindley orders that Heathcliff be locked in the attic until the end of dinner. Before the boy can be locked away, however, Edgar makes a comment about Heathcliff’s hair, and Heathcliff angrily flings hot apple sauce in his face. Catherine clearly appears unhappy with Hindley’s treatment of Heathcliff, and after dinner she goes up to see him. Nelly frees the boy and gives him some supper in the kitchen. Heathcliff confides to Nelly that he intends to seek revenge on Hindley.
At this point, Nelly interrupts her narrative and rises to go, remarking that the
night is growing late. Lockwood says that he intends to sleep the next day and wishes to hear the rest of her story now. He urges her to continue in minute detail.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 8
Nelly skips ahead a bit in her story, to the summer of 1778, several months after the Linton’s visit and twenty three years before Lockwood’s arrival at the Grange. Frances gives birth to a baby boy, Hareton, but she dies not long afterwards, the strain of childbirth having aggravated her chronic consumption. Hindley assigns Nelly the task of raising the baby, as he takes no interest in the child. Miserable at France’s death, Hindley begins to drink excessively and behaves abusively and toward his servants-especially toward Heathcliff, who takes great pleasure in Hindley’s steady decline. Catherine continues to spend time with Edgar Linton, and she behaves like a proper lady while with him. However, when she is with Heathcliff, she acts as she always has. One afternoon, when Hindley is out of the house, Heathcliff declares that he will stay home from the fields and spend the day with Catherine. She tells him ruefully that Edgar and Isabella are planning to visit. When Heathcliff confronts her about the amount of times she spends with Edgar, she retorts that Heathcliff is ignorant and dull. At that moment, Edgar enters-without Isabella-and Heathcliff storms away.
Catherine asks Nelly to leave the room, but Nelly refuses, having been instructed by Hindley to act as Catherine’s chaperone in Edgar’s presence. Catherine pinches her and then slaps her, and when Hareton begins to cry, she shakes him. Edgar, appalled at Catherine’s behavior, attempts to restore order, and Catherine boxes his ears. Edgar is unable to cope with Catherine’s unladylike temper and hurries out of the house. On his way out, however, he catches a last glimpse of Catherine through the window; lured by her beauty, he comes back inside. Nelly now leaves them alone and interrupts them only to tell them that Hindley has arrived home, drunk and in foul temper. When she next enters the room, she can tell that Catherine and Edgar have confessed their love for one another. Edgar hurries home to avoid Hindley, and Catherine goes to her chamber.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 9
Heathclift …shall never know how I love him… he’s more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same….
In this passage from Chapter 3, Lockwood relates the first of the troubling dreams he has in Catherine’s old bed. The quotation testifies to Lockwood’s role as a reader within the novel, representing the external reader – the perplexed outsider determined to discover the secrets of Wuthering Heights. Upon Lockwood’s first arrival at the house, no one answers his knocks on the door, and he cries, “ I don’t care – I will get in!” The same blend of frustration and determination has marked the responses of many readers and critics when facing the enigmas of Wuthering Heights.
The connection between Lockwood and readers is particularly clear in this passage. Catherine first appears to Lockwood, as she does to readers, as a written word – her name, scratched into the paint. When Lockwood reads over the scraped letters, they seem to take on a ghostly power – the simile Bronte uses is that they are “as vivid as specters.” Ghost, of course, constitute a key image throughout the novel. In this instance it is crucial to note that what comes back, in this first dream, is not a dead person but a name, and that what brings the name back is the act of reading it. We see that Bronte, by using Lockwood as a stand – in for her readers, indicates how she wants her readers to react to her book; she wants her words to come vividly before them, to haunt them.
In this passage, one also can see an active example of Wuthering Height’s ambiguous genre. The work is often compared to the Gothic novels popular in the late eighteenth century, which dealt in ghosts and gloom, demonic heroes with dark glints in their eyes, and so on. But Bronte wrote her book in the 1840s, when the socially conscious realistic novel, as represented by the work of Dickens and Thackeray. Wuthering Heights conventions of Victorian realism. The question of genre comes to a head in the appearances’ of ghost in the novel. Readers cannot be sure whether they are meant to understand the ghosts as nightmares, to explain them in the term of the psychology of the characters who claim to see them, or to take them, as in a Gothic novel, as no less substantial than the other characters. Bronte establishes this ambiguity carefully. The “specters” here are introduced within a simile, and in a context that would support their interpretation as a nightmare. Similarly subtle ambiguities lace Lockwood’s account, a few pages later, of his encounter with the ghost of Catherine.
Nelly is in the midst of hiding Hareton from Hindley when Hindley bolts in and seizes the boy. Stumbling drunkenly, he accidentally drops Hareton over the banister. Heathcliff is there to catch him at the bottom of the stairs.
Later that evening, Catherine seeks out Nelly in the kitchen and confides to her that Edgar has asked her to marry him, and that she has accepted. Unnoticed by the two women, Heathcliff listens to their conversation. Heathcliff hears Catherine tell Nelly that she cannot marry him because Hindley has cast him down so low; to marry him now would be to degrade herself. Heathcliff withdraws in a rage of shame, humiliation, and despair, and thus is not present to hear Catherine say that she loves him more deeply than anything else in the world. She says that she and Heathcliff are such kindred spirits that they are essentially the same person. Nonetheless, she insists, she must marry Edgar Linton instead.
That night, Heathcliff runs away from Wuthering Heights. Catherine spends the night outdoors in the rain, sobbing and searching for Heathcliff. She catches a fever, and soon she nears death. The Lintons take her to Thrushcross Grange to recuperate, and Catherine recovers. However, both Mr. and Mrs. Linton become infected and soon die. Three years later, Catherine and Edgar marry. Nelly transfers to Thrushcross Grange to serve Catherine, leaving Hareton in the care of his drunken father and Joseph, the only servant now remaining at Wuthering Heights.
Noticing the clock Nelly again interrupts her narrative, saying that it is half past one, and that she must get some sleep. Lockwood notes in his diary – the same book in which he has set down Nelly’s story – that he, too, will go to bed now.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 10
The traumatic experience at Whutering Heights leads Lockwood becomes sick. Heathcliff pays him a visit, and afterward Lockwood summons Nelly Dean and demands to know the rest of her story. How did Heathcliff, the oppressed and reviled outcast, make his fortune and acquire both Whutering Heights and Thrushcross Grange? Nelly says that she does not know how Heathcliff spent the three years that he was away that it was at this time that he apparently acquired his wealth. But she agrees to continue with her tale. Three years after Heathcliff's departure, six months after the marriage, Heathcliff arrives at Thrushcross Grange, now improved in physique and manner. He is staying with Hindley at Wuthering Heights and taking advantage of his alcoholism and gambling. Catherine and Isabella begin to visit Whutering Heights quite often, and Heathcliff returns the favor by calling at the Grange. Isabella falls in love with Heathcliff and is teased by Catherine. Heathcliff does not discourage it. Nelly suspects that he harbors wicked and vengeful motives, and vows to watch him closely.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 11
Nelly passed by the road to the Heights on her way to Gimmerton, when she was seized with an urge to visit the Heights. She was suddenly afraid that something was wrong with little Hareton, whom she had not seen in nearly a year. When she reached the gate, she saw that the boy was physically fine, but mentally and emotionally stunted. He did not remember her, and threw a rock at her. He cursed her, God, and his father--all lessons he learned from Heathcliff. Nelly sent the boy to get Hindley, but when Heathcliff appeared, Nelly ran away.
Heathcliff feigns love for Isabella. Heathcliff and Edgar get in a fight, with Edgar being humiliated. In anger, Edgar demands his wife choose him or Heathcliff. Catherine refuses to speak to him, locking herself in a room and refusing to eat. Two days pass in this way, and Edgar warns Isabella that if she pursues Heathcliff, he will cast her out of the Linton family.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 12
Catherine throws a fit and becomes very ill. She speaks of death and rambling on the moors. Nelly, worried that her mistress will catch a chill, refuses to open the window. Catherine manages to stumble to the window and force it open; from the window, she believes she can see Whutering Heights. Catherine says that even though she will die, her spirit will never be at rest until she can be with Heathcliff. Eagar arrives and is shocked to find Catherine in such a weak condition. Nelly goes to fetch a doctor. The doctor professes himself cautiously optimistic for a successful recovery. That very night Heathcliff and Isabella elope. Furious, Edgar declares that Isabella is now his sister only in name. Yet he does not disown her, saying instead that she has disowned him.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 13
Nelly and Edgar nurse Catherine, who has become pregnant, but will never fully recover. Isabella sends a letter to Edgar begging for his forgiveness. He refuses. Nelly receives a letter from Isabella recounting her rude treatment and horrible living conditions. Heathcliff has chosen to get his revenge on Edgar by mistreating Isabella. Hindley hopes that somehow he will be able to obtain Heathcliff’s vast fortune for himself, and he has shown Isabella the weapon with which he hopes to kill Heathcliff. Isabella says that she has made a terrible mistake, and she begs Nelly to visit her at Whutering Heights,where she and Heathcliff are now living.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 14
Nelly visits Wuthering Heights with the news that Edgar no longer wants any communication with Isabella or Heathcliff. Heathcliff wants to see Catherine again but Nelly refuses to allow him to come to the Grange, however, and, enraged, Heathcliff threatens that he will hold Nelly a prisoner at Whutering Heights and ho alone. Terrified by that possibility, Nelly agrees to act as mediator.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 15
It is a week later, and Mr. Lockwood has heard all of Mrs. Dean's stories. He continues with the story, repeating what he heard: Nelly returned from the Heights with Heathcliff's letter, and it took her three days to decide to give Catherine the letter, so fearful was she of its effect. That Sunday when the family went to church, Nelly was alone with Catherine, and took this opportunity to give her the letter. Catherine was very different--calm, quiet, almost ghostly in appearance and mood. She would sit and do nothing, usually refusing Edgar's kindness. Nelly opened the letter, and Catherine showed no interest in it until she was told Heathcliff sent it. Catherine sighed, but gave no answer as to whether Heathcliff should be let in to visit. But he was already outside, and he walked into the house and greeted an eager Catherine, with a long embrace. He was shocked by her appearance, but Catherine was angry. She accused he and Edgar of killing her, of breaking her heart. She saw how healthy Heathcliff looked, and she accused him of flourishing while she withered. She thinks he will forget her when she is gone, and love another. Heathcliff cannot bear this, and tells her she is wrong, he can never forget her, nor these hurtful things she has said to him. But he pulls away from her, and she says toNelly: "
is how I'm loved! Well, never mind. That is not
Heathcliff. I shall love mine yet; and take him with me: he's in my soul."
Chapter 15, pg. 146
She speaks eagerly of leaving her current life, and Heathcliff finally comes to her, in an embrace so strong it is almost vicious. Heathcliff asks her why she betrayed them, marrying Edgar? It is all her fault, he tells her--nothing could tear them apart, except her own actions. When she asks him for forgiveness, he says: "Kiss me again, but don't let me see your eyes! I forgive what you have done to me. I love
! How can I?"
Chapter 15, pg. 148
. They remained in each other's arms until the others started to return from church. Nelly urged Heathcliff to go, but when Catherine told him this would be the last time they see each other, he cannot leave her. He held her, and she lay faint in his arms as Edgar entered the room. Edgar revived Catherine andNelly finally made Heathcliff go. He planned to wait by the trees in the garden, and made Nelly promise to tell him any news that passes.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 16
At midnight, Catherine gave birth to a baby girl, which was named
. Two hours later, the mother died, without ever being conscious enough to ask for anyone. Edgar sunk into a deep sorrow, and the baby was at first ignored. Nelly found Edgar lying with the body, who was peaceful, finally at rest. But Nelly wondered ifCatherine was heaven-bound. She went outside to find Heathcliff and tell him the terrible news, but he had already guessed it. He asked how she died, and if she asked for him. But she died quietly, and was not conscious enough to ask for anyone. Furious, Heathcliff called her a liar, and hopedCatherine awakens in hell:
"And I pray one prayer--I repeat it till my tongue stiffens--Catherine Earnshaw, may you not rest as long as I am living! You said I killed you--haunt me, then!...Be with me always--take any form--drive me mad! only do not leave me in this abyss, where I cannot find you! Oh God! it is unutterable! I cannot live without my life! I cannot live without my soul!"
Chapter 16, pg. 153
He hit his head against a nearby tree in anguish. Before the funeral, Edgar stayed with the body. Heathcliff was able to sneak a visit, and placed a lock of his hair into the locket Catherine wore. Nelly added a piece of Catherine's, and wound them together. When she was buried, it was not in the chapel or the Linton's monument, but in a corner of the graveyard where the plants of the moors creep inside.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 17
Summer ended and the
were soon covered with snow.
was rocking little
when she heard someone come in, laughing. She was very surprised to see it was
, who ran all the way from
. She was soaking, without a coat, and had a deep cut under one ear. She changed her clothes and let Nelly tend her wound only after the coachman was ordered to get ready. Isabella was running away from
. Isabella asked Nelly to put the baby away; she grieved for Catherine, but not for Heathcliff, who had become even more crazy since her death. Isabella smashed her wedding ring and threw it in the fire. She told Nelly that she would stay, and help her brother, except that Heathcliff would never let her live in peace at
. She no longer loved him, and his hate has grown stronger. Isabella wished he were dead, but Nelly scolded her, reminding her that he is still a person, and not the worst one on earth. But Isabella isn't even sure he is a man; he broke her heart, and she cannot feel any pity for him. Isabella told Nelly that
did not attend Catherine's funeral, because he could not keep himself sober. Heathcliff had been absent for nearly a week, roaming the moors and coming home at dawn. He would lock himself up and recite terrible prayers, then head down to the Grange. Without Heathcliff around, Isabella was compelled to socialize with the sermonizing
, ignorant little
, or crazy Hindley. She preferred Hindley, because he would leave her alone. But that night when Heathcliff came home, Hindley asked for Isabella's help to keep the master out of the house. Then he asked her to keep quiet so he could kill Heathcliff. Disliking violence, Isabella warned her husband, who didn't listen to her. With all the doors bolted, Heathcliff broke open a window. Hindley shot his gun, and its attached knife cut Hindley. Heathcliff deepened the cut, jumped inside, and began beating Hindley, who lay injured on the floor. He could have killed him, but after the beating he bound Hindley's wounds. Isabella ran for Joseph, and Heathcliff tossed the servant onto the bloody floor, then threw Isabella there as well. He made Isabella convince Joseph not to go for help. The next morning at breakfast, Hindley and Heathcliff sat quietly by the fire. Heathcliff looked troubled, and Isabella enjoyed his pain. She asked Hindley how he was, and told him how much Heathcliff had beaten on him while he was unconscious. She blamed Heathcliff for Catherine's death, and surprisingly, he started to cry. Isabella laughed at him, taunting him. When she suggested that if Catherine had married Heathcliff, she would have grown to hate him, Heathcliff threw a knife at her, stabbing her in the neck. She threw it back and ran from the house. At the completion of her story, Isabella left. She moved to the south of England and gave birth to a little boy whom she named
. Unfortunately, Heathcliff heard about the child. But when Isabella died, she left twelve year old Linton to her brother Edgar's care.
Edgar was happy to hear Isabella left her husband. Hoping to avoid Heathcliff, Edgar became a hermit, rarely leaving the Grange's land. Unlike Heathcliff, he hoped Catherine was at peace, and he grieved quietly. Little Catherine soon became his chief concern. He loved her very much, and Nelly thought often of the difference between Hindley and Edgar's response to their grief. Hindley died six months after his sister, unfortunately leaving Hareton in the care of Heathcliff. Nelly tried to bring the child to the Grange, but Heathcliff would not allow it. Hindley died in debt to Heathcliff. So now the Earnshaw estate is finally his. Hareton, who should have been the heir, was now dependent upon Heathcliff, and made a servant within the house he should have been master of.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 18
Nelly confessed that the twelve years after Catherine's death were the happiest in her life. She had little Cathy to take care of; she grew up to be a beautiful girl, her features a mix of Linton and Earnshaw. She was sweet and sensitive, but also spoiled, and could be bold. Her father loved her, and made sure she was educated and happy. She did not know about the Heights, as she was only allowed outside the park with her father, who desired to keep their neighbors a secret. Cathy was anxious to cross the hills, and visit
, several miles away. But her father prohibited any such travels. He went away for a few weeks when Isabella was near dying, and during the three weeks he was away, Cathy took many solitary walks around the Grange. But one day she did not return for dinner, and Nelly had to go looking for her. A worker saw her jump her pony over the fence, leaving the property. Worried, Nelly sets out for Penistone Crags, thinking Cathy headed that way.
She tried the Heights, and found Cathy there. Luckily, Heathcliff was not at home. Cathy was happy inside, talking to Hareton. Nelly ordered her to leave, but Cathy didn't understand what all the fuss was about. She made Hareton angry when she spoke to him like a servant, then got angry herself when the maid told her that Hareton was her cousin. Shocked to hear that such an ignorant and crude boy could be her relation, she started to cry. Hareton gave her a puppy to make her feel better, but she still cried. After they left, Cathy told Nelly that she had been on her way to Penistone Craggs when one of Hareton's dogs attacked her own, and she was obliged to enter. Hareton treated her well, and told her about the Craggs and the
, but he withdrew after she called him a servant. So angry at Hareton's mean reaction, she threatened to tell her father, but Nelly made her promise not to. Nelly told Cathy that her father disapproved ofthe Heights and its inhabitants, and that she should never go there again, to which Cathy reluctantly agreed.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 19
A letter arrived from Edgar with news of Isabella's death. Cathy eagerly awaited her father's return, and that of her cousin. She and her father were very happy to see each other, while the delicate Linton slept in the carriage. Edgar warned his daughter to be careful of Linton, who would likely be unhappy for quite awhile. But the boy was tired and short of manners.
Once inside, it was hard to make him comfortable; he was full of complaints. He had Edgar's physical attributes but not his good nature. Cathy indulged all his requests, and gave him much affection. But Edgar was afraid he would not be able to keep the boy, whose weak condition would make him a poor inhabitant at the Heights. As if to answer his fears, Joseph came to the door, demanding the boy for his master. Joseph wanted the boy immediately, but Edgar convinced him to wait and allow them to send the boy to the Heights tomorrow morning.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 20
Nelly receives orders to escort the boy to the Wuthering Heights in the morning. On the way, she tries to comfort Linton by telling him reassuring lies about his father. When they arrive,however, Heathcliff does not event pretend to l0ve his son-he calls Linton’s mother a slut, and he says that Linton in his property. Linton pleads with Nelly not to leave him with such a monster, but Nelly mount her horse and rides away hurriedly.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 21
Young Chaterine despairs over her cousin’s sudden departure from Thrushcross Grange. Nelly tries to keep up with the news of young Linton, quizzing the housekeeper at Wuthering Heights whenever she meets her in the nearby town of Gimmerton. She learn that Heatcliff loathes his sniveling son and cannot bear to be alone with him. She also learns that Linton continues to be frail and sickly.
One day, when young Catherine is sixteen, she and Nelly are out bird-hunting on the moors. Nelly loses sight of Catherine for a moment, then finds her conversing with Heatcliff and Hareton. Catherine says that she thinks she has met Hareton before and asks if Heathcliff says no, but that he does have a son back at the house. He invites Catherine and and Nelly to pay a visit to Wuthering heights to see the boy. Nelly always suspicious of Heathcliff, dissaproves of the idea, but Catherine, not realizing that his son is her cousin Linton, is curious to meet the boy, and Nelly cannot keep her from going. At Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff tells Nelly that he hopes Catherine and his son will be married someday. For their part, the cousins do not recognize one another-they have changed much in three years-and because Linton is too sickly and self-pitying to shoe Catherine around the farm, she leaves with Hareton instead, all the while mocking the latter’s illiteracy and lack of education. Heathcliff forces Linton to go after them.
At Thrushcross Grange the next day, Catherine tells her father about her visit and demands to know why he has kept her relatives secret. Edgar tries to explain, and eventually Catherine comes to understand his disdain for Heathcliff. But although Edgar gently implores her not to have any contact with Linton, Catherine cannot resist exchanging letters with the boy covertly. Nelly discovers the correspondence. She then send the notes to Wuthering Height requesting Linton to desist in his part of the correspondence. however, she does not alert Edgar to the young people’s relationship.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 22
Edgar’s health begin to fail, and, as a result, he spend less time with Catherine. Nelly attempt in vain to fail the companionship role formerly played by the girl father. One winter day, during a walk in yhe garden, Catherine climbs the wall and stretches for some fruit on a tree. In the process, her hat falls off her head and down to other side of the wall. She climb downto the wall to retrieve it. Ttehen she cannot back to other side and suddenly Heathcliff appear telling Catherine it was cruel. He accuses her of toying with his son’s affection. He claims Linton maybe dying of a broken heart.She believes him and asks Nelly to bring her to the Wuthering Heights.Nelly hopes the sight of Linton can tells Heathcliff lies.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 23
Next morning, Catherine and Nelly ride to the Wuthering Heights, where they find Linton engaged in his customary whining. He speaks to Catherine about the possibility of marriages; Catherine shoves his chair in a fit of temper. Linton says that Catherine has assaulted him and has injured his already fragile health. He fills Catherine with guilt and requests that she nurse him back to health herself. After Catherine and Nelly ride home, Nelly discovers that she as caught a cold from travelling in the rain. Catherine nurses both her father and Nelly during the day, but, by night, she begins travelling in secret to be with Linton.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 24
After Nelly recovered from her ill, she suspicious on Catherine and wondered where she had been spending every evenings. Catherine tells her that she visits the Wuthering Heights and the incidents where she meets Hareton. Catherine calls him a dunce. Hareton interrupts her visit with Linton, bullying the weak young man and forcing him to go upstairs. Later on, he attempts to apologise for his behavior. She ignores him and goes home. A few days later, she returns to Wuthering Heights and Linton blames her for his humiliation. She leaves and retuns two days later and tells that she will never visit him again. Linton asks for forgiveness after she heard Catherine story. Nelly reveals the girl’s secret to Edgar. Edgar immediately forbids her from visiting Linton again, but he agrees to invite Linton to come to Thrushcross Grange.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 25
Nelly explain to Lockwood’s what events had been happened on previous winter. Cathy did not go against her father. Besides, Edgar wished that his nephew would visit or write, but Nelly told him he was most likely too sick to do so. Moreover, he does not mind if the daughter love Heathcliff’s son, due to his concern who would look after his dear Cathy if he had gone. Edgar writes a letter to Linton. Edgar hopes to meet with his uncle; therefore he could see what kind of man he was. However Mr. Linton was too ill to make such a trip. By June, Cathy had convinced her father to let her meet Linton on the edge of the moors. Nelly was to act as guardian. Cathy's father consented in part because he was near death, and a marriage with Linton would secure Cathy's future. Heathcliff, with his revenge near and his son in ever-poorer health, was to become even crueler in his plans.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 26
Mr. Linton health becomes worse. Cathy, love her father much therefore she and Nelly embarked a trip to
in late summer. They were to meet Linton at the crossroads between the properties, yet he was not there. His messenger told them that Linton wanted them to come closer to
. Nelly was annoyed by it, and even more Linton was weak and ill, much worse than the last time they saw him. He was indifferent to conversation, annoyed by laughter, and sullen. Cathy promised to return next week on Thursday. The visit made her and Nelly decided to wait until the next meeting before coming to conclusion upon the marriage. Furthermore Cathy is in confused; additionally she concealed this from her father.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 27
In the week between visits, Edgar's health deteriorated quickly. Cathy knew her father was dying, and she was at his side constantly. She did not go outside, and had to be reminded of her visit to Wuthering Heights. Catherine and Nelly came to Wuthering Heights as promise to Linton. Linton then reveals his father plan which forces him to court Catherine and he is horrifies what his father would do to her. Mr. Heathcliff returns and next, questions on Edgar condition moreover curious to know if Edgar Linton was near death. Heathcliff is afraid if Linton would die first, and his plan would be spoiled. Heathcliff yelled at his son, embarrassed at his cowardice and constant weeping. The boy was terrified of his father, and eager to please him to avoid punishment. Heathcliff helped Linton to rise, and then asked Cathy to help him into the house. Catherine remembers not to enter the Heights. Linton, terrified to the father, begged Cathy to bring him inside herself. The kind girl could not refuse. Next, Heathcliff imprisoned Catherine when she came to Wuthering Heights. He would not let her leave Wuthering Heights if she does not married to her son, Linton. Mr. Heathcliff also, imprisoned Nelly for five days and Hareton is to be her guard.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 28
The villagers spread news that Nelly and Young Catherine had been lost in Blackhorse March led Zillah, the housekeeper to find and free Nelly from imprisonment. . Mr. Linton was not dead, and Nelly looked around
. She ends up with Linton who was lying on a couch and sucking on a piece of candy. He told her, Catharine is been locked away in another room and he won't tell Nelly where she is. Linton had married to Catherine. Heathcliff has poisoned his son into thinking that Cathy hates him and wants only his
, so Nelly tried her best to reverse this opinion. In the end Linton makes gloats from now on all his possessions belong to the Young Catherine. Heathcliff was with the doctor, anxious for news of Edgar. Linton heartlessly hoped his uncle will die soon. Nelly rush to Edgar, told him that Cathy is safe. Edgar's health weakens quickly and he is dying. Edgar wants to change his will to the name of his daughter; therefore Wuthering Heights didn’t fall into Heathcliff hands. Nevertheless, Cathy arrives before his father die. Assume that her daughter is happy with Linton; Edgar shortly knew that he has no worries if he left the dear daughter. Shortly the man died, Mr. Green appears. Mr. Green tries to have Edgar buried in the chapel, but Nelly wants the master to be buried according to his will at the churchyard next to his wife.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 29
“I got the sexton, who was digging Linton’s grave, to remove the earth off her coffin lid and I opened it….”
When Heathcliff narrates this ghoulish words, the book enters into a Gothic moments. The night after the funeral, Heathcliff came to the Grange to take Cathy. He scolded her for her disobedience, and encouraging Linton to do wrong. Cathy cannot remain at the Grange, because Heathcliff planned on renting it, and he wanted her at the Heights to work. Cathy stood up to him, and said that despite his best efforts, she and Linton do not hate each other. But Cathy's departure made Linton spiteful and wishing for revenge against her. When the grave-digger was digging Linton's grave, Heathcliff got him to open Catherine's. She still looked beautiful, and he bribed the man to knock out the side of their coffins, so they could lie together forever. Nelly was disgusted, but Heathcliff told her that is all that will allow him to be at peace after he dies. He confessed that he went crazy after she died, and he partly sees her ghost evenmore so desperate was he to be with her. After he quieted, Heathcliff took down a portrait of his Catherine from above the mantle. He asked Nelly to send it over tomorrow. Then he took Cathy away, telling Nelly not to visit her at Wuthering Heights and if she wishes to meet her, he will bring Cathrine to Trushcross Grange.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 30
Nelly has not seen Catherine since she left and her only source of information about her is Zillah. Zillah says that Heathcliff refused to allow anyone to be kind to Catherine. Since Linton death, Catherine has remained aloof from Zillah and from Hareton . Desperate to help her Nelly tells Lockwood that she has taken a cottage herself and wants to bring Catherine to live with her, but she know that Heathcliff will not allow it. Writing in his diary where all of Nelly story has been recorded Lockwood says that this is the end of Nelly story and he is finally recovering from his illness. He writes that he plans to ride out to Wuthering Heights and to inform Heathcliff that he will spend the next 6 months in London, he states that he has no desire to spend another winter in this strange company.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 31
Lockwood brings young Catherine a note from Nelly, Hareton first appropriates the note but when Catherine cries he gives back to her. He has been struggling to learn and to acquire an education meanwhile Catherine has been starving for books. Catherine admits thst she does not want to hinder his education still Hareton feels humiliated and throws his books into the fire.heathcliff returns home and notes that Hareton has begun resemble his aunt Catherine so that he can hardly bear to see him. Lockwood passes a meal with Heathcliff and Hareton as he leaves he muses further that it would have been like a fairy tale for young Catherine had fallen in love with Hareton.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 32
Six months later Lockwood remained at the Grange until winter ,Lockwood writes in his diary that he has traveled again to the vicinity there he tries to pay a visit to Nelly ant Grange but Nelly has moved back to Wuthering Heights.Catherine has admitted that she feels guilty for having mocked Hareton attempt to learn to read. At first he and Catherine quarrel but they finally make up and agree to get along, Catherine gives Hareton a book promising to teach him to read and never mock him again.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 33
in every cloud in every tree filling the air at night and caught by glimpses in every object by day, I am surrounded with her image!’’
In this passage Heathcliff confesses to Nelly his inner state and Nelly calls Heathcliff ‘’monomania on the subject of his departed idol’’. The many signs of Catherine shows that ‘’she did exist’’ but that ‘’I have lost her’’. At breakfast after Young Catherine gives Hareton the book she and Heathcliff become embroiled in an argument over her relationship with Hareton. Heathcliff nearly strikes her but looking into her face he suddenly lets her go.
SUMMARY CHAPTER 34
As time passes, Heathcliff becomes more solitary and begins to eat less eventually taking only 1 meal a day. A few days after the incident at breakfast, he spends the entire night out walking and returns in a strange mood. He refuses all food and also insists that he be left alone, he wants to have Wuthering Heights to himself. Heathcliff behavior becomes increasingly strange he begins to murmur Catherine name and insist that Nelly remember his burial wishes. Soon Nelly finds him dead and she tells Lockwood that he has been buried and young Catherine and Hareton shall soon marry on new year day and move to Trushcross Grange. The young lovers now return to the house from outside and Lockwood feels an overpowering desire to leave. He finds his way through the wild moors to the churchyard where he discovers the graves of Edgar, Catherine, and Heathcliff. Although the villagers claims that they have seen Heatcliff ghost wandering about in the company of a second spirit. Lockwood wonders how anyone could imagine unquiet slumbers for the person that lie in such quiet earth.
Themes are the fundamental and often universal idea explored in a literary work.
The Destructiveness of a Love That Never Changes
Catherine and Heathcliff’s passion for one another seems to be the center of
, given that it is the stronger and more lasting than any other emotion displayed in the novel, and that is the structure the novel’s plot. As she tells Catherine and Heathcliff’s story, Nelly criticizes both of them harshly, condemning their passion as immoral, but this passion is obviously one of the most compelling and memorable aspects of the book. It is not easy to decide whether Bronte intends the reader to condemn these lovers as blameworthy or to idealize them as romantic heroes whose love transcends social norms and conventional morality. The book is actually structured around two parallel love stories, the first half of the novel centering on the love between Catherine and Heathciff, while the less dramatic second half features the developing love between young Catherine and Hareton. In contrast to the first, the latter tale ends happily, restoring peace and order to Wuthering Heights and Trushcross Grange. The differences between the two loves stories contribute to the reader’s understanding of why each ends the way it does.
The most important feature of young Catherine and Hareton’s love story is that it involves growth and change. Early in the novel Hareton seems irredeemable brutal, savage, and illiterate, but over time he becomes a loyal friend to young Catherine and learns to read. When young Catherine first meets Hareton he seems completely alien to her world, yet her attitude also evolves from contempt to love. Catherine and Heathcliff’s love, on the other hand, is rooted in their childhood and is marked by the refusal to change. In choosing to marry Edgar, Catherine seeks a more genteel life, but she refuses to adapt to her role as wife, either by sacrificing Heathcliff or embracing Edgar. In Chapter XII she suggests to Nelly that the years since she was twelve years old and her father died have been like a blank to her, and she longs to return to the moors of the childhood. Heathcliff, for his part, possesses a seemingly superhuman ability to maintain the same attitude and to nurse the same grudges over many years.
Moreover, Catherine and Heathcliff’s love is based on their shared perception that they are identical. Catherine declares, famously, “I
Heathcliff,” while Heathcliff, upon Catherine’s death, wails that he cannot live without his “soul”, meaning Catherine. Their love denies difference, and is strangely asexual. They do not kiss in dark corners or arrange secret trysts, as adulterers do. Given that the Catherine and Heathcliff’s love is based upon their refusal to change over time or embrace difference in others, it is fitting that the disastrous problems of their generation are overcome not by some climatic reversal, but simply by the inexorable passage of time, and the rise of a new and distinct generation. Ultimately,
presents a vision of life as a process of change, and celebrates this process over and against the romantic intensity of its principal characters.
The Precariousness of Social Class
As members of the gentry, the Earnshaws and the Lintons occupy a somewhat precarious place within the hierarchy of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth century British society. At the top of British society was the royalty, followed by the aristocracy, then by the gentry, and then by the lower classes, who made up the vast majority of the population. Although the gentry, or upper middle class, possessed servants and often large estates, they held a nonetheless fragile social position. The social status of aristocrats was a formal and settled matter, because aristocrats had official titles. Members of the gentry, however, held no titles, and their status was thus subject to change. A man might see himself as a gentleman but find, to his embarrassment, that his neighbors did not share this view. A discussion of whether or not a man was really a gentleman would consider such questions as how much land he owned, how many tenants and servants he had, how he spoke, whether he kept horses and a carriage, and whether his money came from land or “trade”--- gentlemen scorned banking and commercial activities.
Considerations of class status often crucially inform the characters’ motivations in
. Catherine’s decision to marry Edgar so that she will be “the greatest woman of the neighborhood” is only the obvious example. The Lintons are relatively firm in their gentry status but nonetheless take great pains to prove this status through their behaviours. The Earnshaws, on the other hand, rest on much shakier ground socially. They do not have a carriage, they have less hand, and their house, as Lockwood remarks with great puzzlement, resembles that of a “homely, northern farmer” and not that of a gentlemen. The shifting nature of social status is demonstrated most strikingly in Heathcliff’s trajectory from homeless waif to young gentlemen-by-adoption to common laborer to gentlemen again (although the status-conscious Lockwood remarks that Heathcliff is only a gentlemen in “dress and manners”.)
Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.
Bronte organizes her novel by arranging its elements – characters, places, and themes – into pairs. Catherine and Heathcliff are closely matched in many ways, and see themselves as identical. Catherine’s character is divided into two warring sides: the side that wants Edgar and the side that wants Heathcliff. Catherine and young Catherine are both remarkably similar and strikingly different. The two houses, Wuthering Heights and Trushcross Grange, represent opposing worlds and values. The novel has not one but two distinctly different narrators, Nelly and Mr.Lockwood. The relation between sech paired elements is usually uite complicated, with the members of each pair being neither exactly alike nor diametrically opposed. For instance, the Lintons and the Earnshaws may at the first seem to represent opposing sets of values, but, by the end of the novel, so many intermarriages have taken place that one can no longer distinguish between the two families.
Repetition is another tactic Bronte employs in organizing
. It seems that nothing ever ends in the world of this novel. Instead, time seems to run in cycles, and the horrors of the past repeat themselves in the present. The way that the names of the characters are recycled, so that the names of the characters of the younger generation seem only to be rescramblings of the names of their parents, leads the reader to consider how plot elements also repeat themselves. For instance, Heathcliff’s degradation of Hareton repeats Hindley’s degradation of Heathcliff. Also, the young Catherine’s mockery of Joseph’s earnest evangelical zealousness repeats her mother’s. Even Heathcliff’s second try at opening Catherine’s grave repeats his first.
A play typically begins with exposition, which presents characters and settings and introduces the basic situation in which the characters are involves.
In the late winter months of
a man named Lockwood rents a manor house called Thrushcross Grange in the isolated moor country of England. Here, he meets his dour landlord, Heathcliff, a wealthy man who lives in the ancient manor of Wuthering Heights, four miles away from the Grange. In this wild, stormy countryside, Lockwood asks his housekeeper, Nelly Dean, to tell him the story of Heathcliff and the strange denizens of Wuthering Heights. Nelly consents, and Lockwood writes down his recollections of her tale in his diary; these written recollections form the main part of
During the rising action, complications developed, conflicts emerged, suspence built and crisis occured
Nelly remembers her childhood. As a young girl, she works as a servant at Wuthering Heights for the owner of the manor, Mr. Earnshaw, and his family. One day, Mr. Earnshaw goes to Liverpool and returns home with an orphan boy whom he will raise with his own children. At first, the Earnshaw children—a boy named Hindley and his younger sister Catherine—detest the dark-skinned Heathcliff. But Catherine quickly comes to love him, and the two soon grow inseparable, spending their days playing on the moors. After his wife’s death, Mr. Earnshaw grows to prefer Heathcliff to his own son, and when Hindley continues his cruelty to Heathcliff, Mr. Earnshaw sends Hindley away to college, keeping Heathcliff nearby.
Three years later, Mr. Earnshaw dies, and Hindley inherits Wuthering Heights. He returns with a wife, Frances, and immediately seeks revenge on Heathcliff. Once an orphan, later a pampered and favored son, Heathcliff now finds himself treated as a common laborer, forced to work in the fields. Heathcliff continues his close relationship with Catherine, however. One night they wander to Thrushcross Grange, hoping to tease Edgar and Isabella Linton, the cowardly, snobbish children who live there. Catherine is bitten by a dog and is forced to stay at the Grange to recuperate for five weeks, during which time Mrs. Linton works to make her a proper young lady. By the time Catherine returns, she has become infatuated with Edgar, and her relationship with Heathcliff grows more complicated.
When Frances dies after giving birth to a baby boy named Hareton, Hindley descends into the depths of alcoholism, and behaves even more cruelly and abusively toward Heathcliff. Eventually, Catherine’s desire for social advancement prompts her to become engaged to Edgar Linton, despite her overpowering love for Heathcliff. Heathcliff runs away from Wuthering Heights, staying away for three years, and returning shortly after Catherine and Edgar’s marriage.
When Heathcliff returns, he immediately sets about seeking revenge on all who have wronged him. Having come into a vast and mysterious wealth, he deviously lends money to the drunken Hindley, knowing that Hindley will increase his debts and fall into deeper despondency. When Hindley dies, Heathcliff inherits the manor. He also places himself in line to inherit Thrushcross Grange by marrying Isabella Linton, whom he treats very cruelly. Catherine becomes ill, gives birth to a daughter, and dies. Heathcliff begs her spirit to remain on Earth—she may take whatever form she will, she may haunt him, drive him mad—just as long as she does not leave him alone. Shortly thereafter, Isabella flees to London and gives birth to Heathcliff’s son, named Linton after her family. She keeps the boy with her there.
During the falling action, the intensity subsized, eventually winding down to a resolution in which all lose ends are tied up.
Thirteen years pass, during which Nelly Dean serves as Catherine’s daughter’s nursemaid at Thrushcross Grange. Young Catherine is beautiful and headstrong like her mother, but her temperament is modified by her father’s gentler influence. Young Catherine grows up at the Grange with no knowledge of Wuthering Heights; one day, however, wandering through the moors, she discovers the manor, meets Hareton, and plays together with him. Soon afterwards, Isabella dies, and Linton comes to live with Heathcliff. Heathcliff treats his sickly, whining son even more cruelly than he treated the boy’s mother.
Three years later, Catherine meets Heathcliff on the moors, and makes a visit to Wuthering Heights to meet Linton. She and Linton begin a secret romance conducted entirely through letters. When Nelly destroys Catherine’s collection of letters, the girl begins sneaking out at night to spend time with her frail young lover, who asks her to come back and nurse him back to health. However, it quickly becomes apparent that Linton is pursuing Catherine only because Heathcliff is forcing him to; Heathcliff hopes that if Catherine marries Linton, his legal claim upon Thrushcross Grange—and his revenge upon Edgar Linton—will be complete. One day, as Edgar Linton grows ill and nears death, Heathcliff lures Nelly and Catherine back to Wuthering Heights, and holds them prisoner until Catherine marries Linton. Soon after the marriage, Edgar dies, and his death is quickly followed by the death of the sickly Linton. Heathcliff now controls both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. He forces Catherine to live at Wuthering Heights and act as a common servant, while he rents Thrushcross Grange to Lockwood.
Nelly’s story ends as she reaches the present. Lockwood, appalled, ends his tenancy at Thrushcross Grange and returns to London. However, six months later, he pays a visit to Nelly, and learns of further developments in the story. Although Catherine originally mocked Hareton’s ignorance and illiteracy (in an act of retribution, Heathcliff ended Hareton’s education after Hindley died), Catherine grows to love Hareton as they live together at Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff becomes more and more obsessed with the memory of the elder Catherine, to the extent that he begins speaking to her ghost. Everything he sees reminds him of her. Shortly after a night spent walking on the moors, Heathcliff dies. Hareton and young Catherine inherit Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange, and they plan to be married on the next New Year’s Day. After hearing the end of the story, Lockwood goes to visit the graves of Catherine and Heathcliff.
An orphan brought to live at Wuthering Heights by Mr. Earnshaw
Dark-haired, dark-skinned 'gypsy'
Fall in love with Catherine Earnshaw
Powerful, fierce and often cruel man
Leaves Wuthering Heights when he hears her say that she will marry Edgar Linton.
He returns to get revenge on Hindley for his mistreatment of him, to Catherine for betrayed him.
He marries Isabella (Edgar's sister) to make her miserable, and takes Hindley's property and his son Hareton in order to degrade him.
He makes Catherine and Edgar's daughter Catherine marry his son, and uses them to gain the property of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange.
He makes everyone miserable until the end, when he gives up his plan of revenge and dies.
The daughter of Mr. And Mrs. Earnshaw, sister to Hindley and Heathcliff.
She befriends Heathcliff, and she loves him and feels he is a part of her.
But she finally choose to marry Edgar Linton because of her desire for social advancement.
Before married to Edgar, she is wild, impulsive, and likes to makes lot of trouble. Though she's mischievious, she's not a cruel person.
She can love tenderly, but her temper can often override her loyalty.
She died after giving birth to Catherine Linton and burried near the moors.
Well-bred but rather spoiled as a boy.
Edgar Linton grows into a tender, constant, but cowardly man. He is almost the ideal gentleman.
Catherine accurately describes him as “handsome,” “pleasant to be with,” “cheerful,” and “rich.”
He wants young Catherine to stay away from Heathcliff, but he does not want her to be alone after his death, so he allows her to spend time with Linton, not realizing how ill and ill tempered he is. When he dies his property goes to Linton, and Linton wills it to Heathcliff.
Edgar Linton's sister.
Falls in love with heathcliff and marries him.
Heathcliff treats her as a mere tool in his quest for revenge on the Linton family.
He makes her life miserable, and eventually she escapes from him and moves away.
She bears a son (Linton) and dies when he is twelve.
Known formerly as Ellen Dean.
Chief narrator of Wuthering Heights.
A sensible, intelligent, and compassionate women.
Grew up essentially alongside Hindley and Catherine Earnshaw.
It is through her that most of the story is told, as she is relating it to Mr. Lockwood, the tenant at Thrushcross Grange.
Lockwood's narration forms a frame around Nelly's.
Vain and presumptuous gentleman.
Catherine Linton (Young Catherine)
Catherine is the daughter of Catherine and Edgar.
Headstrong behavior, impetuousness and social arrogance.
Gentler and more compassionate creature than her mother.
She is sheltered, but she eventually meets Heathcliff and others at Wuthering Heights.
She tries to help her sick cousin Linton, and realizes too late what a hateful man Heathcliff is.
She is forced to marry Linton and becomes sad and mean because of her treatment at the Heights, but eventually she becomes friends with Hareton and in the end they are to be married.
The son of Hindley and Frances Earnshaw.
Hareton is Catherine’s nephew.
After Hindley’s death, Heathcliff assumes custody of Hareton, and raises him as an uneducated field worker, just as Hindley had done to Heathcliff himself.
Illiterate and quick-tempered, Hareton is easily humiliated, but shows a good heart and a deep desire to improve himself.
He marries young Catherine at the end of the novel.
Linton is the son of Isabella and Heathcliff.
Isabella had him after she ran away from Heathcliff.
Linton is always sick and rather selfish, weak, sniveling and demanding.
Heathcliff takes him after Isabella's death, in order to use him to gain the property of his uncle Edgar.
Towards the end of his life though, he does help Catherine, and he dies young.
Catherine’s brother, and Mr. Earnshaw’s son.
Hindley resents it when Heathcliff is brought to live at Wuthering Heights.
He is jealous of his father's attentions to Heathcliff, after his father's death,
Hindley begins to abuse the young Heathcliff, terminating his
education and forcing him to work in the fields.
He lapses into alcoholism and dissipation after his wife Frances, died
Location of the Moors
The Moors: a Place of Freedom
The moorland that Emily Brontë describes is a combination of areas that she knew such as the moor around Haworth where she spent most of her life, the Shibden valley where she worked, and the countryside near Cowan Bridge where she lived briefly as a child. But it seems likely that Haworth was the intended position for Wuthering Heights and the Gimmerton valley. In chapter 4, Mr Earnshaw walks sixty miles to Liverpool from the Heights; according to my route map, the distance by road from Haworth to Liverpool is 63 miles
Wuthering Heights - the Gothic Farmhouse
Wuthering Heights ("Wuthering" is a local word, meaning wild, exposed, storm-blown, see
) is in a very exposed position on the moors, a four mile (6.5 kilometer) walk from Thrushcross Grange. The nearest town or village is Gimmerton which has the doctor and parson.
The farm sits on the northern side of a hilltop also known as Wuthering Heights (or "the Heights"). This hill prevents it from seeing Thrushcross Grange. The road from the farm into Gimmerton valley is steep and winding.
Emily Brontë does not describe Thrushcross Grange with the same detail that she applies to Wuthering Heights.
Thrushcross Grange lies within a large park, with a two-mile (three kilometer) walk from the main house to the porter's lodge by the entrance. It is a four mile (six and a half kilometer) walk to Wuthering Heights which lies to the north. Wuthering Heights cannot be seen from the Grange although Penistone Crags beyond can.The park is unusually large for an untitled family like the Lintons: Cathy rarely leaves it for the first thirteen years of her life.
The stone above the front door of Wuthering Heights, bearing the name of Hareton Earnshaw, is inscribed, possibly to mark the completion of the house.
Hindley born (summer); Nelly born
Edgar Linton born
Catherine Earnshaw born (summer); Isabella Linton born (late 1765)
Heathcliff brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr Earnshaw (late summer)
Mrs Earnshaw dies (spring)
Hindley sent off to college
Hindley marries Frances; Mr Earnshaw dies and Hindley comes back (October); Heathcliff and Cathy visit Thrushcross Grange for the first time; Cathy remains behind (November), and then returns to Wuthering Heights
Hareton born (June); Frances dies
Heathcliff runs away from Wuthering Heights; Mr and Mrs Linton both die
Catherine has married Edgar (March); Heathcliff comes back (September)
Heathcliff marries Isabella (February); Catherine dies and Cathy born (20 March); Hindley dies; Linton born (September)
Isabella dies; Cathy visits Wuthering Heights and meets Hareton; Linton brought to Thrushcross Grange and then taken to Wuthering Heights
Cathy meets Heathcliff and sees Linton again (20 March)
Cathy and Linton are married (August); Edgar dies (August); Linton dies (September); Mr Lockwood goes to Thrushcross Grange and visits Wuthering Heights, beginning his narrative
Mr Lockwood goes back to London (January); Heathcliff dies (April); Mr Lockwood comes back to Thrushcross Grange (September)
Cathy plans to marry Hareton (1 January)
-Wuthering heights centers around the stories of Heathcliff.The first paragraph of the novel provides a vivid physical picture of him, as Lockwood describes how his "black eyes" withdraw suspiciously under his brows at Lockwood's approach. Nelly's story begins with his introduction into Earnshaw's family,his vengeful machinations drive the entire plot,and his death ends the book. The desire to understand him and his motivations has kept countless readers engaged in the novel.
-Heathcliff ,however,defies being understood,and it is difficult for readers to resist seeing what they want or expect to see in him.The novel teases the reader with the possibility that Heathcliff is something other than what he seems,that his cruelty is merely an expression of his frustrated love for Catherine,or that his sinister behaviors serve to conceal the heart of a romantic hero.We expect Heathcliff's character to contain such a hidden virtue because he resembles a hero in a romance novel.Traditionally,romance novel heroes appear dangerous,brooding and cold at first,only later to emerge as fiercely devoted and loving.One hundred years before Emily Bronte wrote Wuthering Heights,the notion that " a reormed rake makes the best husband" was already a cliche of romantic literature,and romance novels center around the same cliche to this day.
-However,Heathcliff does not reform,and his malevolence proves so great and long-lasting that it cannot be adequately explained even as a desire for revenge against Hindley,Catherin,Edgar,etc.As he himself points out,his abuse of Isabella is purely sadistic,as he amuses himself by seeing how much abuse she can take and still come cringing back for more.Critic Joyce Carol Oates argues that Emily Bronte does the same thing to the reader that Heathcliff does to Isabella,testing to see how many times the reader can be shocked by Heathcliff's gratuitous violence and still,masochistically,insist on seeing him as a romantic hero.
-It is significant that Heathcliff begins his life as a homeless orphan on the streets of Liverpool.When Bronte composed her book,in the 1840s,the English economy was severely depressed,and the conditions of the factory workers in industrial areas like Liverpool were so appailling that the upper and middle classes feared violent revolt.Thus,many of the more affluent members of society beheld these workers with a mixture of sympathy and fear.In literature,the smoky,threathening,miserable factory-towns were often represented in religious terms,and compared to hell.The poet William Blake,writing near the turn of the nineteenth century,speaks of England's "dark Satanic Mills".Heathcliff,of course is frequently compared to a demon by the other characters in the book.
-Considering this historical context,Heathcliff seems to embody the anxieties that the book's upper-and middle-class audience had about the working classes.The reader may easily sympathize with him when he is powerless,as a child tyrannized by Hindley Earnshaw ,but he becomes a villain when he acquires power and and returns to Wuthering Heights with money and the trapping of a gentleman.This corresponds with the ambivalence the upper classes felt toward the lower classes-the upper classes trying to escape their miserable circumstances by acquiring political,social,cultural,or economic power.
-The location of Catherine's coffin symbolizes the conflict that tearsApart her short life.She is not buried in the chapel with the Lintons.Nor is her coffin placed among the tombs of the Earnshaws.Instead,as Nelly describes in ChapterXVI,Catherine is buried “ in a corner of the kirkyard,where the wall is so ow that heath and bilberry plants have climbed over it from the moor.”.Moreover,she is buried with Edgar on one side and Heathcliff on the other,suggesting her conflicted loyalties.Her actions are driven in part by her social ambitions,which initially are awakened during her first stay at the Lintons,and which eventuallycompel her to marry Edgar.However,she is also motivated by impulses that prompt her to violate social conventions-to love Heathcliff,throw temper tantrums,and run around on the moor.
Edgar is only serves as Catherine’s foil,Edfar Linton servers as Heathcliff’s.Edgar is born and raised a gentleman.He is graceful,well-mannered,and instilled with civilized virtues.These qualities cause Catherine to choose Edgar over Heathcliff and thus to initiate the contention between the men.Nevertheless ,Edgar’s gentlemanly qualities ultimately prove useless in his ensuing rivalvry with Heathcliff.Edgar in particularly humiliated by his confrontation with Heathcliff in chapterXI,in which he openly shows his fear of fighting Heathcliff.Catherine,having witnessed the scene,taunts him,saying “Heathcliff would as soon lift a finger at you as the king would march his army against a colony of mice.”As the reader can see from the earliest descriptions of Edgar as a spoiled child,he refinement is tied to his helplessness and impotence.
Charlotte Bronte, in her preface to the 1850 edition of Wuthering Heights,refers to Edgar as “an example of constancy and tenderness.” And goes on to suggest that her sister Emily was using Edgar to point out that such characteristic constitute true virtues in all human beings,and not just in women,as society tended to believe.However,Charlotte’s reading seems influenced by her own feminist agenda.Edgar’s inability to counter Heathcliff’s vengeance,and his naïve belief on his deathbed in his daughter's safety and happiness make him weak,if sympathetic,character.
Point of View
The speaker uses first person, making Nelly's observations and claims more believable to readers. This type of approach appeals to the reader's sense of emotions because of the physical violence and first hand encounters the speaker experiences throughout her visit at the Heights with Cathy.
The narrator strikes readers as a very patient, understanding, and somewhat neutral individual to all characters. Although the speaker has strong opinions, she listens thoroughly to all sides of the story and observes carefully before speaking her mind. She is extremely protective of what she believes is right and is quick to defend others, caring little about what happens to her.
The narrator's tone exemplifies frustration, anger, and fear towards Heathcliff's unstable and ruthless behavior. The narrator displays her disappointment in Heathcliff's harsh intentions of harming Cathy, Linton, and Hareton just to have revenge on a person who no longer living and to degrade Edgar by taking away his land.
Method of Organizing
The passage is organized from least important to most important. The narrator states facts, occurrences, and obersvations in the first part of each thought or statement. Then, it expands from there by the reinforcements of elaboration and references to the past similar to the action or event at hand.
Method of Conveying Theme
The speaker conveys the theme of fulfilling vengeance through her observations of Heathcliff and his statements. Only when the speaker and Heathcliff are alone does he tell the truth of his intentiions. Heathcliff confesses that he forced Hareton to endure the same suffering and develop the same attitude towards others just as Heathcliff endured in the past under Hindley's care. He also admits that he only wants Cathy to stay so Linton can court her - hinting a marriage in the future. The speaker now understands that their marriage is the only way for Heathcliff to gain both the estates of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange.
The narrator focuses all attention on the important actions taking place at the Heights, especially with Heathcliff's cruel intentions and involvement in the personal affairs of Cathy, Linton, and Hareton.
The narrator uses mainly visual pictures to paint an almost exact picture of the characters being observed. The narrator emphasizes the facial features to point out the mood and emotions of the character. In this way, readers can visualize a mental picture of how a character is reacting towards another character or an event. "The young man had been washing himself, as was visible by the glow on his cheeks, and his wetted hair" (200).
Bronte uses an extended metaphor to describe Heathcliff's purpose in using Linton as a tool to his plan of obtaining both estates. Hareton, on the other hand, is merely used to satisfy his unquenched revenge against Hindley Earnshaw. "...one is gold put to the use of paving-stones, and the other is tin polished to ape a service of silver" (201).
Wuthering Heights Tone
Dark and Stormy
You know how
's Snoopy, sitting atop his dog house with a typewriter, always starts his stories "It was a dark and stormy night"? Well, he may as well be Emily Brontë, because that sort of mysterious atmosphere sets the tone of the novel. As a Gothic novel,
is persistently dark and eerie. There is not a very wide range of tones: it's either grim or grimmer.
However, you could argue that the ending has more hope and promise, as do certain moments throughout the story, such as the years after Catherine's death. The attitudes of our narrators help shape the tone as the drama unfolds, so that Lockwood's initial curiosity and fascination convey a lighter feeling than after he realizes how sinister Heathcliff is. Whenever Heathcliff is around, the tone tends to grows darker. Likewise, you can tell Nelly Dean really enjoys storytelling, so she tries to sustain a tone of suspense and mystery – that way she keeps Lockwood's, and by extension the reader's, attention. This is what keeps Lockwood up late and what keeps us reading.
Wuthering Heights Writing Style
Before she wrote
, Emily Brontë composed quite a bit of poetry, and the urge to write in a lyrical manner really shows in her prose style. Her poems are full of flowers, mountain breezes, frozen snow, thorny briars, and the like. Like Heathcliff and Catherine, she finds inspiration in nature. Some of the only affectionate and cheerful descriptions in the novel concern the heath and the hills, flowers, bees, and moonlight.
Brontë varies the style depending on whether Lockwood or Nelly Dean is narrating, and even further with each character being described.
Nelly's speech is animated, with lively images and vivid descriptions that reflect her presence at the scenes she describes. She also enjoys ratcheting up the drama, infusing her accounts with her own opinions and attitudes. You can tell she enjoys her position as narrator to Lockwood's listener, and this sense of power influences her style.
Technically we are reading Lockwood's diary, and his style is intimate but more formal and composed than Nelly's.
Above both of them, Brontë's style prevails, and she has something of a rhythmical and elegiac approach. For just about every implication of the sinister and dark, there is a beam of light struggling to emerge. Her prose style is not so heavily under the influence of the Gothic that she denies the possibility of hope and redemption. An example of her striking ability to balance these oppositions can be found in the novel's final sentence, where, standing at the graves of Catherine, Heathcliff, and Edgar, Lockwood observes:
I lingered round them, under that benign sky; watched the moths fluttering among the heath and hare-bells; listened to the soft wind breathing through the grass; and wondered how any one could ever imagine unquiet slumbers for the sleepers in that quiet earth
Brontë crafts the image of the three graves in subtle, graceful terms. Gothic elements are still present, with the suggestion of life after death and the supernatural human-like description of the breathing wind. Even in the face of death, nature is life-sustaining and life-giving. And rather than mentioning dead corpses buried in the earth (which she wouldn't be above doing!), Brontë terms the bodies as "sleepers," a far more poetic characterization, and uses the word "unquiet" instead of "disturbed." Brontë's careful style accommodates both the extreme moments of gothic horror and the interludes and conclusions in which a peaceful romantic scene prevails.
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